Knee Anatomy

Anatomy of the Knee

The knee is a hinge-like joint comprised of various muscles, ligaments, cartilage and tendons. The four major ligaments are the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL), the Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL), the Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL), and Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL). These four ligaments act collectively to support and stabilize the knee throughout its range of motion.

The quadricep and hamstring muscles are responsible for extending and bending the knee.

The meniscus cartilages and articular cartilage are located inside the knee joint, between the femur and tibia. They both act to cushion the knee and prevent the opposing bones from coming into contact with one another. Articular cartilage is a layer of padding that is attached to the end of the bones acting as cushion when weight is transferred from one bone to another. Mensici are mobile rubbery discs that help stabilize and transfer forces across the knee joint.


What are the symptoms of an injury?

  • Pain and swelling and instability
  • Painful clicking and/or popping
  • Stiffness and loss of motion

How did my specialist diagnose it?

A discussion of your symptoms, a physical examination, and X-rays are useful for a diagnosis. Your specialist may recommend having an MRI scan as well.

What are the treatment options?

Placing a bag of ice directly on the knee for twenty minutes prevents swelling and inflammation from occurring inside the knee

Over the counter medications such as Aleve, Advil, Motrin, and aspirin can be used to help reduce swelling and pain.

A cost effective alternative to surgery. Medication is injected directly into the joint in the specialist’s office.

Physical Therapy
A therapist can work with you to first control your pain and inflammation. They then will help you regain your strength and range of motion.

Start with a free wellness consult to explore your goals and what tools are available to you.

Integrated Physical Therapy and Wellness
Our team of physical therapists, performance specialists, and registered dietitians works collaboratively with you in designing an integrated rehabilitation plan that will help you reach your full potential.

If you fail to improve after nonsurgical care, your specialist may wish to intervene surgically. Your specialist can discuss the details of the surgery with you should it become necessary.

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